Fluid intelligence Graph lesion-deficit map
Fluid intelligence is the ability to solve novel, challenging problems even when previous learning and experience are not available. Fluid intelligence is one of the most important aspects of cognition. It correlates with many cognitive skills (e.g. It is a key mental capacity involved in ‘active thinking’. Fluid intelligence is believed to be an important mental capacity that plays a role in \”active thinking\”. 7 It declines dramatically with various dementias 8 and reflects executive impairment in older frontal-involved patients. Fluid intelligence is important in defining human behavior, but it’s still controversial whether fluid intelligence is a single cognitive ability or a group of abilities. 10
Fluid intelligence is measured by tests that require non-verbal materials to solve novel problems, minimizing the dependence on prior knowledge. In large-scale factor analysis, it is known that these tests have strong correlations with fluid intelligence. Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices 13 – a test that is widely used in research and clinical practice – contains visual analogy multiple choice problems with increasing difficulty. Each problem is a matrix of geometrical figures that has been incomplete. There are multiple options to fill in the missing figure. Verbal tests for fluid intelligence, such as the Alice Heim 4 Part 1 (AH4-1), are used less frequently. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 16 is also used to estimate fluid Intelligence by averaging the results of a variety of subtests. However, some subtests (e.g. Some subtests (e.g. The correlations between fluid intelligence and picture completion are low. It has been suggested that tests like the APM would be the best for a theory-based study of fluid intelligence changes after brain injury. 20, 21
According to proposals regarding the neural substrates for fluid intelligence, frontal and paracognitive functions are closely linked. Duncan and his colleagues 22 have suggested that the \”multiple-demand networks\” (MD) is a network consisting primarily of frontal and paraccipital areas. This network, they claim, is \”the seat\” of fluid intelligence. According to the influential parietofrontal integration (P-FIT) theory, which is based on neuroimaging research of healthy individuals, structural symbolism, abstraction, and hypothesis generation are derived from sensory inputs in parietal cortical areas, while problem solving and hypothesis generation come from frontal cortex interactions. The anterior cingulate engages in response selection, and inhibits alternative responses once the best solution has been identified. P-FIT, despite its name, also posits occipital involvement and temporal involvement. This implies widely distributed substrates for fluid intelligence.