Clinical Trials for Aging
Review of a miniature.
With age, the risk of mortality and morbidity increases exponentially. This is due to chronic inflammation, DNA damage accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and an increased number of senescent cells. Mechanistic studies have identified specific pathways and processes that, according to some theories, are responsible for age-related phenotypes like frailty and reduced physical resilience. Caloric restriction, pharmacologically targeting pathways of longevity such as the mechanistic targets of rapamycin(mTOR), sirtuins and anti-apoptotic pathway in senescent cell are among the promising treatments to alleviate the effects of aging. In animal models, the regulation of these pathways has shown significant results for extending lifespan and improving health. It is not clear if the same results will translate to humans. The development of biomarkers that are associated with age and morbidity is a requirement for translation, as longitudinal trials can be difficult, not practical or ethical, when the human life expectancy is the endpoint. This paper will cover current biomarkers as well as the results of antiaging intervention studies on humans. This paper will cover the results of anti-aging intervention studies in humans and current biomarkers.
As we age, our susceptibility increases to chronic diseases that can lead to death. It is a part of our lives that we don’t often think about how we can delay it. So far, the principal of \”one-disease-one-treatment\” has brought medical sciences far but this line of thought may soon be outdated when it comes to aging related conditions. As if fighting a multi-headed monster, if one condition is successfully treated, another will soon follow. As an example, eradicating cancer and cardiovascular disease will extend the average life expectancy by 3.3 years and 4 months, respectively. (Arias, et. al., 2013,) The benefit of treating multiple illnesses together is greater than the sum of the numbers.
The greatest risk factor of most diseases is aging. This is because, as we age, our cells and tissues undergo a series processes that result in a gradual decline of functionality, an accumulation of damage, increased inflammatory responses, and cell death. These processes may be reversible or treatable and all chronic diseases related to aging can be treated simultaneously – or postponed – to achieve healthy aging. The treatment of chronic diseases in the elderly could be improved by treating the underlying cause of aging, rather than just treating the symptoms. This field is important because the number of older people (65+) in all countries of the world is increasing (World Population Prospects – Population Division, 2021).